GLOUCESTER, Thomas (d.1406), of Whitchurch, Oxon.
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Family and Education
Marshal of Henry of Bolingbroke’s household by May 1390-Oct. 1399, of the King’s hall c. Oct. 1399-d.
Escheator, Oxon. and Berks. 26 Nov. 1399-24 Nov. 1400.
Gloucester was of humble birth. There is no evidence that he inherited any land; indeed, he seems to have owed his entire livelihood to the patronage of Henry of Bolingbroke. He first appears as marshal of the latter’s household, receiving wages of 8d. a day, when at Calais in May 1390; and as such accompanied him on both his major expeditions overseas, in 1390-1 and 1392-3. On one occasion Henry made him a gift of 53s.4d. In addition, Gloucester received a fee of ten marks a year payable from the revenues of the Lancastrian lordship of Bolingbroke, by a grant made by Henry’s father, John of Gaunt, on 12 Nov. 1391; another ten marks a year from the duchy of Lancaster manor of Hinton Waldrist, Berkshire, which appears to have been first paid in 1395-6; and a separate annuity of five marks, which also dated from the 1390s or earlier. It seems very likely that he journeyed with his lord into exile in 1398, for he was still then a member of Henry’s immediate entourage.