East Retford

Borough

Published in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1558-1603, ed. P.W. Hasler, 1981
Available from Boydell and Brewer

Elections

DateCandidate
1571HENRY DRAYCOT
 THOMAS BROXHOLME
1572JOB THROCKMORTON
 GEORGE DELVES
14 Nov. 1584DENZIL HOLLES
 THOMAS WAAD
1586DENZIL HOLLES
 JOHN CONYERS
10 (?) 1588GEORGE CHAWORTH
 ALEXANDER RADCLIFFE
1593ROGER PORTINGTON
 ANTHONY COOKE
4 Oct. 1597ROGER PORTINGTON
 JOHN ROOS
1601ROGER MANNERS II
 ROBERT KYDMAN

Main Article

East Retford did not receive a charter of incorporation until 1607, being governed during Elizabeth’s reign, as for many years past, by two bailiffs. The borough began to send Members to Parliament in this period in 1571. Elections were held in the moot hall in the presence of the bailiffs and an unknown number of burgesses. None of the Elizabethan MPs lived in the town.

The list of Members leaves little doubt that the powerful Manners family, earls of Rutland, was behind East Retford’s representation in the Parliament of 1571, although Edward Manners, the 3rd Earl, only came of age in July 1510: he may have needed the support of his uncle George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, or of another relative, Sir William Cecil, whose ward he had been. A favourite with the Queen, Shrewsbury, whose grandfather had been granted the manor of East Retford by Henry VIII, may have been high steward of the borough; he was also lord lieutenant of Nottinghamshire, at least until 1569, and the owner of extensive estates in the area. The East Retford Members were challenged in the House on 6 Apr. 1571, along with other boroughs who had not previously returned MPs during the reign, and the matter was referred to the returns committee.

East Retford sent Members to four Parliaments during the 3rd Earl of Rutland’s lifetime, and his influence is to be found on every occasion. Thomas Broxholme of Lincolnshire, elected in 1571, was for many years a legal adviser to the Manners family. His colleague, Henry Draycot, was escheator for Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire until early in 1571 and owned property in both counties: his patron is not known. George Delves (1572) was a friend of Rutland, his father having been steward to the 2nd Earl; he was also related, through his first wife, to Lord Burghley. Job Throckmorton, the noted puritan, secured the senior seat in 1570. He was a distant relative of the Earl, and this probably explains his return to East Retford. Denzil Holles (1584 and 1586), of Irby, Lincolnshire, was the son of Sir William Hoiles of Haughton, near East Retford, a leading Nottinghamshire gentleman; he may not have required a patron, though his family was friendly with both Shrewsbury and Rutland. Thomas Waad, Holles’s colleague in 1584, was a lawyer resident in London. His name may have been suggested to Rutland by his brother William Waad, clerk of the Council, who is known to have corresponded with the Earl. Alternatively, William may have asked Burghley to use his influence. In 1586 Rutland asked the East Retford authorities for both seats. They wer